Sentence

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Sentence

দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দ সমষ্টি একত্রিত হয়ে একটি পূর্ণাঙ্গ মনের ভাব প্রকাশ করলে তাকে Sentence বলে।

যেমন

Jalal is a meritorious boy.

Who are you?

Do the work.

May you live long.

Hurrah! I have got a 5 GPA.

Classification of Sentence:

অর্থের দিক থেকে Sentence পাঁচ প্রকার। যথা:

  1. Assertive Sentence 
  2. Interrogative Sentence 
  3. Imperative Sentence 
  4. Optative Sentence 
  5. Exclamatory Sentence 

Assertive Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা কোনো বর্ণনা বা বিবৃতি প্রদান করা হয় তাকে Assertive Sentence বলে।

উদাহরণ: Tamim Iqbal is a good batsman.

Assertive Sentence আবার দুই প্রকার। যথা:

  • Affirmative Sentence 
  • Negative Sentence 

Affirmative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা কোনো হ্যাঁ-বোধক বিবৃতি প্রকাশ পায়, তাকে Affirmative Sentence বলে। যেমন: 

  1. Wakil takes coffee at breakfast.
  2. Joya is good at Physics.

Negative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা না-বোধক বিবৃতি প্রকাশ পায়, তাকে Negative Sentence বলে। উদাহরণ:  

  1. Wakil doesn’t take coffee at breakfast.
  2. Joya isn’t good at Physics.

Interrogative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা কোনো প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসা করা হয় বা কোনোকিছু জানতে চাওয়া হয় তাকে Interrogative Sentence বলে। উদাহরণ: 

  1. What is your name?
  2. Do you know me?
  3. Are you a student? 
  4. Why didn’t you attend the party?

Imperative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা আদেশ, উপদেশ, অনুরোধ, নিষেধ ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ পায় তাকে Imperative Sentence বলে। উদাহরণ:

  1. Do the work.
  2. Always speak the truth.
  3. Please, help me.
  4. Never tell a lie. 

Optative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা মনের ইচ্ছা, প্রার্থনা, আশীর্বাদ ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ পায় তাকে Optative Sentence বলে। 

উদাহরণ: 

  1. May Allah bless you.
  2. Long live Bangladesh. 
  3. May his soul rest in peace.

Exclamatory Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা মনের আকস্মিক অনুভূতি অর্থাৎ আনন্দ-বেদনা, সুখ-দুঃখ, হাসি-কান্না, বিরাগ, বিস্ময়, উচ্ছ্বাস ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ পায় তাকে Exclamatory Sentence বলে।

উদাহরণ:

  1. Hurrah! I have got a 5 GPA.
  2. Alas! My grandfather is no more.
  3. How delicious the pizza is!
  4. What an interesting book it is!

Transformation of Sentence

(According to meaning)  

Affirmative to Negative

উদাহরণ

Affirmative: Only Allah can help us.

Negative: None but Allah can help us.

Affirmative: Depression begets only the worst.

Negative: Depression begets nothing but the worst.

Affirmative: I am only thirteen.

Negative: I am not more than thirteen.

Affirmative: One must obey one’s parents.

Negative: One can not but obey one’s parents.

Affirmative: Every mother loves her child.

Negative: There is no mother but loves her child.

Affirmative: As soon as I reached the station, the train left.

Negative: No sooner had I reached the station than the train left.

Affirmative: I will always remember you.

Negative: I will never forget you.

Affirmative: Jamil sometimes visits me.

Negative: Jamil doesn’t always visit me.

Affirmative: Both Helal and Rahim can do the work.

Negative: Not only Helal but also Rahim can do the work.

Affirmative: The old man is too weak to walk.

Negative: The old man is so weak that he can not walk.

Assertive to Interrogative

অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative Sentence-এ রূপান্তর করার নিয়ম:

1. Auxiliary Verb যুক্ত হ্যাঁ-বোধক Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative করার নিয়ম:

Auxiliary Verb + n’t(not)+ Subject+Main Verb(যদি থাকে)+

অতিরিক্ত অংশ+প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন(?)

এক্ষেত্রে মনে রাখার কৌশল হলো: ASMA

A(Auxiliary Verb)+ n’t+ S(Subject)+M(Main Verb)+ A(Additional-Part/অতিরিক্ত অংশ)+প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন (?)।

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: Ayesha is a meritorious girl.

Interrogative: Isn’t Ayesha a meritorious girl?

Assertive: We are the best creation of Allah.

Interrogative: Aren’t we the best creation of Allah?

2. Auxiliary Verb বিহীন না-বোধক Assertive Sentence কেও উল্লিখিত নিয়মে Interrogative করা যায়। শুধু ‘not’ টাকে তুলে দিতে হয়। উদাহরণ: 

Assertive: Kabir is not a criminal.

Interrogative: Is Kabir a criminal?

3. Auxiliary Verb বিহীন Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative করার নিয়ম:

Person ও Tense অনুযায়ী বাক্যের শুরুতে Don’t/Doesn’t বা Didn’t বসে। 1st Person, 2nd Person ও 3rd Person Plural Number এর ক্ষেত্রে Present Indefinite Tense-এ Don’t বসে এবং 3rd Person Singular Number-এ Doesn’t বসে। Past Indefinite Tense-এ সকল Person এর ক্ষেত্রে Didn’t বসে। এরপর প্রদত্ত Sentence এর Subject, Main Verb এর Base form এবং বাকি অংশ বসে। সবশেষে অবশ্যই প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসবে।

অর্থাৎ, 

Don’t/Doesn’t/Didn’t+Subject+Main Verb+বাকি অংশ+প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন(?)

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: We go to school.

Interrogative: Don’t we go to school?

Assertive: He plays football.

Interrogative: Doesn’t he play football? 

Assertive: Jawad helped a blind passerby.

Interrogative: Didn’t Jawad help a blind passerby?

4. Don’t/Doesn’t/Didn’t যুক্ত Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative করার ক্ষেত্রে শুধু ‘not’ উঠে গিয়ে Do/Does/Did কে Sentence এর শুরুতে বসাতে হয়। বাকি সব উল্লিখিত নিয়ম-৩ এর মতোই।

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: Rehena doesn’t go her work place.

Interrogative: Does Rehena go her work place?

Assertive: My friend didn’t play football yesterday.

Interrogative: Did my friend play football yesterday?

5. Every/All+noun ও Everybody/Everyone/All এবং Nobody/No one/None যুক্ত Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative করার নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ: 

Assertive: Every mother loves her child.

Interrogative: Is there any mother who doesn’t love her child?

Assertive: Everybody hates a criminal.

Interrogative: Who doesn’t hate a criminal?

Assertive: Nobody likes a liar.

Interrogative: Who likes a liar?

6. Nothing যুক্ত Assertive Sentence কে Interrogative করার নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: Nothing is impossible to willing heart.

Interrogative: What is impossible to willing heart? 

Assertive: He said nothing to his parents.

Interrogative: Did he say anything to his parents?

 7. Assertive Sentence কে সরাসরি Interrogative করার নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: He can never forget you.

Interrogative: Can he ever forget you?

Assertive: We have nothing to say.

Interrogative: Have we anything to say?

Assertive to Imperative 

অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে Assertive Sentence কে Imperative Sentence-এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ: 

Assertive: You should read attentively.

Imperative: Read attentively.

Assertive: You should not waste your time.

Imperative: Don’t waste your time.

Assertive: We should go for a walk.

Imperative: Let’s go for a walk.

Assertive: We should not disobey our parents.

Imperative: Let’s not disobey our parents.

Assertive to Optative 

অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে Assertive Sentence কে Optative Sentence-এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম:

May + Subject + Verb+ বাকি অংশ

উদাহরণ: 

Assertive: You wll pass in the examination.

Optative: May you pass in the examination.

Assertive: I wish that you may live long.

Optative: May you live long.

Assertive: I pray that Allah may bless you.

Optative: May Allah bless you.

Assertive to Exclamatory 

অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে Assertive Sentence কে Exclamatory Sentence-এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ:

Assertive: It is a very beautiful bird.

Exclamatory: What a beautiful bird it is!

Assertive: The cuckoo sings very sweetly.

Exclamatory: How sweetly the cuckoo sings!

Assertive: I wish I were a child again.

Exclamatory: If I were a child again!

Exclamatory to Assertive 

অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে Exclamatory Sentence কে Assertive Sentence-এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম:

উদাহরণ:

Exclamatory: Hurrah! We have won the game.

Assertive: It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.

Or

We rejoice that we have won the game.

Exclamatory: Alas! My grandfather is no more.

Assertive: It is a matter of sorrow that my grandfather is no more.

Exclamatory: If I were a bird!

Assertive: I wish I were a bird.

Exclamatory: Had I been a king!

Assertive: I wish I had been a king.

Exclamatory: Would that I were a billionaire.

Assertive: I wish I were a billionaire.

Exclamatory: What a nice watch it is!

Assertive: It is a very nice watch.

Exclamatory: How terrible the accident was!Assertive: The accident was very terri

Written By:
Foysal Alam
B.S.S (Hon’s) in Economics
Chittagong University

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